Participation and Media| News Media Framing of the Anti-Austerity and Pro-“Europe” Movements During the Greek Referendum Protest Cycles

Andreas Kollias, Fani Kountouri


This study aims to explore and discuss how Greek news media Twitter accounts reported and framed grassroots protest/support activities of the anti-austerity camp and the pro-“Europe” camp, and their protagonists, grievances, and demands in the days before and after the July 2015 bailout referendum. The Greek referendum offers a special case to study the protest paradigm in complex, hybrid and polarized protest arenas, where two opposing protest camps mobilize massively to achieve their political aims. In total, 1,999 media tweets with references to grassroots protest/support activities and public opinion/citizens’ behavior in relation to the referendum were analyzed using content analysis processes and framing devices. Results show significant differences in frame coverage depending on the protest cycle challenging the protest paradigm, while the media emphasis on high-profile sources confirms key features of this paradigm.


Greek 2015 referendum, news framing, protest paradigm, protest cycles, Twitter, sourcing, content analysis

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