Participation and Media| Citizens Beyond Troika: Media and Anti-Austerity Protests in Portugal
The evolution of Portuguese civil society after the postrevolution period (1974) is framed in a normalization of the concept of democracy, significantly reducing civic participation. In a period of severe austerity (2011‒14), civic and social movements emerged strongly in Portuguese society and organized protests throughout the country and abroad. Anchored to the values of the Carnation Revolution, civil society took to the streets to claim the end of austerity. In September 2012, the government withdrew one of the proposed austerity measures after a million demanded it in the largest demonstration since the time of the April Revolution. This article analyzes and discusses the representations of the protests and activists in mainstream digital media and how social movements used Facebook to engage with different publics and promote civic participation.