Disinformation as a Widespread Problem and Vulnerability Factors Toward it: Evidence From a Quasi-Experimental Survey in Spain

Roberto Gelado-Marcos, Plácido Moreno-Felices, Belén Puebla-Martínez


In recent years, several institutions have alerted the effects of information disorders while struggling to handle the problem effectively. Our investigation triangulates between qualitative and quantitative approaches: on the one hand, focus groups adapted to the digital landscape (which many have hinted is an environment naturally favoring disinformation) were used; on the other, a quasi-experimental survey was conducted with 4,351 stratified respondents. The results provide evidence-based data that both confirm the widespread nature of vulnerability—more than half of the Spanish population presents a relevant degree of vulnerability toward disinformation—and spot specific groups that may require targeted actions to ease the effects of information disorders.


disinformation, vulnerability, fake news, social media, Spain

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