Mediadem| The Freedom and Independence of Public Service Media in Europe: International Standards and Their Domestic Implementation
This article explores the guidance that international and European organizations, such as the Council of Europe and the European Union, have developed regarding the remit, governance and funding of public service media. It argues that considerable work has now been done to identify concrete measures that can help to protect public service broadcasters from external political or commercial pressures and assist them in fulfilling their public service missions. Although these standards are by now well established they receive very variable recognition in the 14 Mediadem countries studied. The authors suggest that effective implementation of these international guidelines can help to support, even if they cannot guarantee, media independence over time. There is thus room for improvement and mutual learning across all systems, whether those emphasizing political pluralism or the virtues of a more technocratic, professional system of governance.